Ballistics Info

I tried to give a range of ballistics to provide an overall picture of a cartridge's performance and capabilities. These data are thus more useful for comparing one cartridge to another than they are for comparing an individual weapon or load to an ideal. This is why shotgun loads are included in such weird units (i.e. grains instead of ounces). Handloads and exotic projectiles can make nearly any cartridge look like a small artillery piece; for this reason, only loads using unitary (not pre-fragmented) ammunition were included when determining "most energetic loading".

MUZZLE ENERGY FORMULA

Velocity (in F.P.S.) x Velocity x Bullet Weight (in grains) divided by 450,240

Rimfire Cartridges

Typical Bullet Weight

Lowest Reported Muzzle Energy

Most Energetic Loading

grains

foot-pounds

Bullet Weight, grains

Muzzle Velocity, feet per second

Muzzle Energy, foot-pounds

.22 BB Cap

18

20

20

780

26

.22 CB Cap

29

33

30

725

34

.22 Short

29

32

15

1710

97

.22 Long

29

32

29

1240

99

.22 Long Rifle (2" bbl)

40

65

40

890

70

.22 Long Rifle (6" bbl)

93

40

1060

100

.22 Long Rifle (22.5" bbl)

100

40

1255

140

.22 Stinger

33

1410

32

1640

191

.22 WRF

45

1050

45

1450

209

.22 WMR (2" bbl)

40

70

30

1238

102

.22 WMR (6" bbl)

40

1428

181

.22 WMR (22.5" bbl)

300

40

1910

324

10.4x38Rmm Swiss Vetterli

334

1345

1330

44 Henry Flat

200

1125

568

Centerfire Handgun Cartridges under 9mm

Actual Bullet Diameter

Typical Bullet Weight

Lowest Reported Muzzle Energy

Most Energetic Loading

inches

grains

foot-pounds

Bullet Weight, grains

Muzzle Velocity, feet per second

Muzzle Energy, foot-pounds

2.7mm Kolibri Auto

0.107

2.8

3

700

3.25

5.45mm USSR

0.21

40

40

1034

95

5.7x28mm P90

23

23

2790

400

.22 Rem. Jet

0.223

40

288

40

2460

535

.221 Rem. Fireball

0.224

50

704

50

2650

780

.25 ACP

0.251

50

64

50

810

73

7mm Nambu

0.280

112

56

1250

196

7.65mm Long

0.309

77

206

85

1120

240

.32 S&W

0.31

85

90

98

705

115

.32 Short Colt

0.313-0.317

80

54

80

745

100

.32 Long Colt

0.312

80

94

82

755

104

.32 S&W Long

0.312

98

96

98

780

132

.32 ACP

0.31

71

100

71

905

129

.32 H&R Mag

0.312

90

145

85

1100

230

7.62mm Nagant

0.295

108

122

108

1100

290

7.65mm Luger

0.309

93

257

100

1210

325

7.62mm Tokarev

0.307

87

87

1390

365

7.63mm Mauser

0.308

86

257

86

1410

375

8mm Japanese

0.32

83

165

102

960

202

8mm French Ordnance

0.323

102

104

115

700

126

Centerfire Handgun Cartridges 9mm and above

Actual Bullet Diameter

Typical Bullet Weight

Lowest Factory Reported Muzzle Energy

Most Energetic Loading

inches

grains

foot-pounds

Bullet Weight, grains

Muzzle Velocity, feet per second

Muzzle Energy, foot-pounds

9mm Browning Long

0.355

95

192

110

1100

300

.38 Short Colt

0.357

125

150

130

770

171

.38 Long Colt

0.357

150

150

770

195

.38 S&W

0.359

158

150

200

630

176

.380 ACP

0.355

88

162

90

1000

200

9mm Makarov

0.363

95

173

95

1060

237

.38 Special +P (2" barrel)

0.357

125

185

95

1023

221

.38 Special

0.357

130

165

110

945

220

.38 Special +P

0.357

140

240

99

1175

291

.38 Special +P+

0.357

110

300

115

1250

399

9mm Police

0.355

124

225

123

1070

313

.38 Colt Auto

0.356

125

312

115

1150

338

9mm Glisenti

0.355

124

308

123

1070

350

9mm Parabellum

0.356

123

270

88

1500

440

9mm Para +P

0.356

115

384

124

1299

465

9mm Para +P+

0.356

115

410

115

1310

439

.38 Super

0.356

125

368

125

1150

500

9x21mm

0.356

124

340

124

1335

490

9mm Bergmann Bayard

0.354

124

124

1190

390

.357 SIG

0.355

125

445

124

1387

530

.356 TSW

135

485

115

1520

593

9x23mm Win

0.356

125

1450

583

9mm Win Mag

0.355

115

115

1475

556

.357 Magnum

0.357

140

400

125

1450

583

.357 Maximum

0.357

158

676

158

1825

1168

.40 S&W

0.4

155

363

135

1324

524

10mm Auto subsonic

0.4

180

361

180

950

361

10mm Auto

0.4

180

425

170

1340

680

.400 Cor-Bon

0.4

150

385

135

1400

588

.41 Action Express

0.41

180

378

170

1100

457

.41 Magnum

0.41

210

434

210

1300

788

.44-40

0.427

205

545

200

1125

560

.44 Russian

0.429

246

265

246

770

324

.44 Special

0.43

240

284

200

1035

476

.44 Magnum

0.43

240

533

210

1495

1042

.44 Auto Mag

0.429

200

972

240

1400

1045

.440 Cor-Bon

0.43

260

1440

240

2045

2230

.455 Webley & Scott

0.455

224

247

200

775

265

.45 ACP

0.452

200

245

200

975

421

.45 ACP +P

0.452

185

494

165

1250

573

.45 Super

0.452

230

674

185

1335

732

.45 Colt

0.452

240

355

185

1100

497

.455 Revolver Mk II

0.455

260

213

262

700

285

.45 Win Mag

0.451

230

999

185

1850

1406

.445 Supermag

0.432

240

1045

300

1350

1215

.454 Casull

0.452

260

1220

240

1916

1955

.50 Action Express

0.5

325

1227

300

1579

1661

Centerfire Rifle Cartridges up to 8mm

Actual Bullet Diameter

Typical Bullet Weight

Lowest Reported Muzzle Energy

Most Energetic Loading

inches

grains

foot-pounds

Bullet Weight, grains

Muzzle Velocity, feet per second

Muzzle Energy, foot-pounds

.17 Rem

0.172

25

801

25

4040

906

4.73mm Caseless

49

49

3050

1021

5mm Experimental

45

45

3100

955

5.45mm M1974 USSR

0.221

52

1016

54

2950

1045

.22 Hornet

0.223

50

640

45

2500

723

.222 Rem

0.224

50

960

55

3200

1174

.223 Rem

0.224

62

965

80

2869

1460

.22-250

0.224

55

1224

70

3300

1690

6mm PPC

0.243

70

1365

90

3000

1799

6mm-223

0.243

70

1295

75

2900

1400

.243 Win

0.243

95

1599

105

3100

2133

6.5mm Dutch

0.263

156

1590

140

2550

2360

6.5mm Arisaka

0.252

140

1460

120

3000

2400

6.5mm Mauser

0.264

120

1814

160

2600

2402

6.5mm Italian

0.265

156

1570

139

2580

2045

.270 Win

0.277

150

2449

160

2800

2786

7mm Mauser

0.284

142

2199

154

2690

2475

30-40 Krag

0.308

220

220

2200

2365

7.5mm French

0.307

150

2100

180

2590

2692

7.5mm Swiss

0.308

165

2430

180

2650

2805

M52

0.31

132

130

2440

.30 US Carbine

0.308

110

845

100

2200

1075

300 Whisper

0.308

220

375

125

2283

1445

Standard M1943 USSR

0.311

122

1445

125

2400

1599

.30-30

0.308

150

1394

150

2390

1902

7.62mm NATO

0.308

150

2180

168

2680

2680

.30-06

0.308

180

2033

190

2700

3076

Type 54R USSR

0.31

180

2620

185

2660

2910

.300 Win Mag

0.308

165

3054

190

3150

4187

.300 Weatherby Mag

0.308

180

3066

165

3450

4360

7.65mm Argentine Mauser

0.31

174

2150

150

2920

2841

7.7mm Rimless Japanese

0.31

182

2237

130

2950

2510

0.303 British

0.311

180

1919

180

2460

2420

7.92mm Intermediate

.323

120

1193

125

2310

1485

7.92mm Mauser

0.323

150

2100

198

2625

3031

7.92mm Patrone 318

0.323

7806

223

4150

8530

8mm Austrian

0.323

244

2102

196

2310

2320

8mm Lebel

0.328

198

2481

198

2450

2645

8mm M31

0.33

198

2358

206

2300

2420

Centerfire Rifle Cartridges over 8mm

Actual Bullet Diameter

Typical Bullet Weight

Lowest Reported Muzzle Energy

Most Energetic Loading

inches

grains

foot-pounds

Bullet Weight, grains

Muzzle Velocity, feet per second

Muzzle Energy, foot-pounds

.338 Win Mag

0.338

225

3518

300

2500

4164

.35 Remington

0.358

158

1599

140

2500

1943

9.3x74mmR

.365

258

3172

232

2630

3535

.375 Win

0.375

235

1955

220

2200

2365

.375 H&H Mag

0.375

270

2585

235

3000

4697

.378 Weatherby Mag

0.375

270

5165

270

3180

6062

.38-40

0.4

180

444

180

1160

538

.416 Rigby

0.416

350

5115

325

2900

6071

11mm Vickers

0.445

385

1635

386

1493

1903

.444 Marlin

0.429

240

2499

275

2250

3092

577/450 Martini Henry

0.455

480

1730

500

1320

1939

.45-70 Gov

0.458

300

1306

400

1900

3207

.458 Win Mag

0.458

400

2938

500

2350

6133

.460 Weatherby Mag

0.458

500

5997

500

2650

7799

12.7 x 80SR

580

2539

8304

12.7mm USSR

0.511

788

2822

13,938

.50 Match

0.511

630

2913

11,863

.50 BMG

0.511

720

12,565

660

3080

13,910

13mm T.u.F.

11,563

795

3000

15,892

13.2mm Breda

791

2211

8588

13.2mm Hotchkiss

805

.55 Boys

13,729

735

3250

17,242

14.5mm B-32

979

3320

23,967

585 Nyati

.585

650

3255

750

2525

10,620

15mm Besa

18,782

1160

2900

21,668

.600 Nitro Express

.620

900

900

1950

7596

Cannon Cartridges over 13mm

Typical Bullet Weight

Lowest Reported Muzzle Energy

Most Energetic Loading

grains

foot-pounds

Bullet Weight, grains

Muzzle Velocity, feet per second

Muzzle Energy, foot-pounds

13mm T.u.F.

11,563

795

3000

15,892

13.2mm Breda

791

2211

8588

13.2mm Hotchkiss

805

.55 Boys

13,729

735

3250

17,242

14.5mm B-32

979

3320

23,967

15mm Besa

18,782

1160

2900

21,668

20x72mm Short Oerlikon

2222

2191

1820

16129

20x82mm

1775

1420

2624

21711

20x99mmR Soviet

1481

2624

22655

20x101mm Oerlikon rebated

2191

2222

2460

29868

20mm M50

1559

3380

39558

20x105mmB Short Solothurn

2068

2499

28690

20x110mm Hispano

2006

2886

37122

20x125mm Japanese ATR

2531

2690

40662

20x138mmB Long Solothurn

1836

2952

35543

20x139mm Vektor

3444

Shotgun Shells

Bore Diameter

Typical Shot Load

Most Energetic Loading

inches

ounces

Shot Style

Shot Load, grains

Muzzle Velocity, feet per second

Muzzle Energy, foot-pounds

9mm Flobert rimfire 1.75"

0.354

1/4

#6 through #9 lead

109

600

87

410 2.5"

0.41

1/2

high velocity birdshot

218

1245

750

410 3"

0.41

11/16

high velocity shot

300

1135

860

32 gauge 2.5"

0.526

1/2

#6 and #8 lead

219

1260

771

28-gauge 2.75"

0.550

3/4

high velocity shot

437

1125

1229

24 gauge 2.5"

0.580

11/16

#5 through #8 lead

300

1280

1095

20-gauge 2.75""

0.615

7/8

3/4 oz. rifled slug

328

1570

1796

20-gauge 3"

0.615

1 1/4

turkey load

546

1200

1749

16-gauge 2.75"

0.662

1 1/8

magnum birdshot

546

1260

1928

12-gauge 2.75"

0.729

1 1/8

1.25 oz. rifled slug

546

1520

2806

12-gauge 3"

0.729

1 7/8

1.25 oz. rifled slug

546

1600

3109

12-gauge 3" Milspec Heavy Case

0.729

1 1/4

buckshot

560

1601

3188

12-gauge 3 1/8" Milspec

0.729

11/16

flechettes

292

1948

2461

12-gauge 3.5"

0.729

2 1/4

premium birdshot

984

1150

2891

10-gauge 3.5"

0.775

1 3/4

premium/duplex birdshot

984

1205

3173

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